What may be the most familiar causal chain in modern

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Unformatted text preview: th American rail-freight rates would continue to be the lowest or one of the lowest in the world, and the industry would finance most or all of its capital requirements without public support. [____] Private sector solves Business Insider 2012 (“A Complete Breakdown Of Freight Railroad Spending In The US”, 1 -31,, DOA: 4-19-12) The Association of American Railroads (AAR) announced yesterday that it plans to spend a record $13 billion on the nation's freight railroads and hire more than 15,000 new employees in 2012. “Unlike trucks, barges or airlines, America’s freight railroads operate on infrastructure they own, build and maintain themselves so taxpayers don’t have to. And this year they are investing at a record rate to meet the demands of the recovering economy,” Edward R. Hamberger, AAR President and CEO, said in a press release. 7|Page High Speed Rail Negative BDL No Harms – Competitiveness – Economic Collapse Doesn’t Cause War [____] [____] Collapse doesn’t cause war – best statistical and historical analyses prove. Morris Miller, former Executive Director and Senior Economist at the World Bank, 2000 (Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Vol. 25, Iss. 4, Winter, “Poverty as a cause of wars?” p. Proquest) The question may be reformulated. Do wars spring from a popular reaction to a sudden economic crisis that exacerbates poverty and growing disparities in wealth and incomes? Perhaps one could argue, as some scholars do, that it is some dramatic event or sequence of such events leading to the exacerbation of poverty that, in turn, leads to this deplorable denouement. This exogenous factor might act as a catalyst for a violent reaction on the part of the people or on the part of the political leadership who would then possibly be tempted to seek a diversion by finding or, if need be, fabricating an enemy and setting in train the process leading to war. According to a study undertaken by Minxin Pei and Ariel Adesnik of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peac e, there would not appear to be any merit in this hypothesis. After studying ninety-three episodes of economic crisis in twenty-two countries in Latin America and Asia in the years since the Second World War they concluded that:19 Much of the conventional wisdom about the political impact of economic crises may be wrong ... The severity of economic crisis - as measured in terms of inflation and negative growth - bore no relationship to the collapse of regimes ... (or, in democratic states, rarely) to an outbreak of violence ... In the cases of dictatorships and semidemocracies, the ruling elites responded to crises by increasing repression (thereby using one form of violence to abort another). [____] And, every card they read will be based off World War II – that theory is false. Nial Ferguson, professor of history at Harvard, 2006 (Foreign Affairs, “The Next War of the World”, p. online) Nor can economic crises explain the bloodshed. What may be the m...
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