While the incomes and racial identities of cities and

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Unformatted text preview: perpetuate the racial exclusion that was built into federal policies from the 1930s through 50s – policies that created middle-class White suburbs and poor, non-White inner-city neighborhoods. While the incomes and racial identities of cities and suburbs have been changing, people of color continue to be deeply isolated from opportunities. Poor people of color are much more likely than poor Whites to live in concentrated poverty neighborhoods that lack opportunities, like good jobs, good schools, and quality services. Concentrated poverty neighborhoods are neighborhoods where at least 20% (rural) or 40% (urban) of the population lives at or below the federal poverty level.3 -thirds of people living in concentrated urban poverty are Black or Latino, even though they are one -fourth of the US population.4 In rural America, half of poor rural Blacks and Native Americans live in concentrated poverty and 27% of all poor rural Latinos live in areas of high poverty.5 high rates of concentrated poverty compared to the rest of the country (26% in Alabama, 41% in Louisiana, and 41% in Mississippi).6 ew York City is a concentrated poverty neighborhood (248 total, or 11.2% of all neighborhoods) and these neighborhoods are predominately people of color (87.5% of these neighborhoods are over 80% non-White). Of the 923,113 people living in concentrated poverty in New York, 37.1% are Black and 49.7% Latino, compared to 8.4% White.7 (See Appendix A for a map of concentrated poverty in neighborhoods of color in New York City). o Very poor neighborhoods of color have far less to no jobs in their neighborhoods compared to other areas of the City. (See Appendix B for a map showing the relationship between concentrated poverty, neighborhoods of color, and location of jobs). 17 | P a g e Mass Transit Affirmative BDL Car Culture Leads to Systemic Violence [____] Owning a car is not a choice – it is forced on us by the infrastructure we choose to support. Mass transit is critical to break the cycles of discrimination and violence Zack Furness, Columbia College Chicago Department of Humanities, 2010 (One Less Car, pg. 8) The historical transformation of the United States into a full-blown car culture is commonly, though somewhat erroneously, attributed to choice or desire, as if the aggregation of individual consumer choices and yearnings necessarily built the roads, lobbied the government, zoned the real estate, silenced the critics, subsidized auto makers, underfunded public transit, and passed the necessary laws to oversee all facets of these projects since the 1890s. One of the primary stories used to bolster this broad-based claim is that of america’s love affair with the automobile—a common trope in U.S. popular culture that colors our understanding of transportation history and also buttresses some of the most partisan arguments posed by the car’s vigorous defenders. 27 it is unquestionable t hat many americans do, in fact, love their cars and cling to the myt...
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This document was uploaded on 02/06/2014.

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