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N25 12 p a g e mass transit affirmative bdl air

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Unformatted text preview: d the lives of almost 43,000 people annually in recent years, and more sprawling metropolitan areas tend to have higher rates of traffic fatalities. n25 12 | P a g e Mass Transit Affirmative BDL Air Pollution Add-on [____] Air pollution is a serious threat – it kills 70,000 people in the U.S. every year Bernie Fischlowitz-Roberts, Analyst at the Earth Policy Institute, 2002 (“Air Pollution Fatalities Now Exceed Traffic Fatalities by 3 to 1,” Earth Policy Institute, September 17th, http://www.earth-policy.org/plan_b_updates/2002/update17) The World Health Organization reports that 3 million people now die each year from the effects of air pollution. This is three times the 1 million who die each year in automobile a ccidents. A study published in The Lancet in 2000 concluded that air pollution in France, Austria, and Switzerland is responsible for more than 40,000 deaths annually in those three countries. About half of these deaths can be traced to air pollution from vehicle emissions. In the United States, traffic fatalities total just over 40,000 per year, while air pollution claims 70,000 lives annually. U.S. air pollution deaths are equal to deaths from breast cancer and prostate cancer combined. This scourge of cities in industrial and developing countries alike threatens the health of billions of people. Governments go to great lengths to reduce traffic accidents by fining those who drive at dangerous speeds, arresting those who drive under the influence of alcoho l, and even sometimes revoking drivers' licenses. But they pay much less attention to the deaths people cause by simply driving the cars. While deaths from heart disease and respiratory illness from breathing polluted air may lack the drama of deaths from an automobile crash, with flashing lights and sirens, they are no less real. Air pollutants include carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates. These pollutants come primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal-fired power plants and gasoline-powered automobiles. Nitrogen oxides can lead to the formation of ground-level ozone. Particulates are emitted from a variety of sources, primarily diesel engines. "Smog"-a hybrid word used to describe the mixture of smoke and fog that blankets some cities-is primarily composed of ozone and particulates. 13 | P a g e Mass Transit Affirmative BDL Obesity Add-on [____] Expanding mass transit substantially decreases obesity and health care costs Treasury Department 2012 (“A NEW ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT”, MARCH 23, 2012, http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/economicpolicy/Documents/20120323InfrastructureReport.pdf ) If improved infrastructure changed the way Americans live and work, there would be significant benefits to health and wellness. For example, MacDonald et al. find that improving neighborhood environments and increasing the public’s use of light rail transit would benefit health to the extent it causes increased physical activity, a reduction in the incidence of obesity (body mass index greater than 30), and a reduction in the odds of becoming obese.44 Using data on individuals before (July 2006 to February 2007) an d after (March 2008 to...
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