Varsity-Packet-Final

N610 in addition it is important to recognize that

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Unformatted text preview: mulas agreed upon by members of Congress. For the most, part, the money goes back to the states and to metropolitan areas, which then fund projects based on the priority lists that they generate. It is true that Washington allocates some money for transit and some for highways, but within those categories, states and local governments generally have power to pay for the projects they want. 14 | P a g e States CP BDL Answers to: Federal Funding Solves Best [____] [____] Feds only account for 25% of transportation spending and the money is poorly allocated Economist, 2011 (April 28, “Life in the Slow Lane,” http://www.economist.com/node/18620944) The federal government is responsible for only a quarter of total transport spending, but the way it allocates funding shapes the way things are done at the state and local levels. Unfortunately, it tends not to reward the prudent, thanks to formulas that govern over 70% of federal investment. Petrol-tax revenues, for instance, are returned to the states according to the miles of highway they contain, the distances their residents drive, and the fuel they burn. The system is awash with perverse incentives. A state using road-pricing to limit travel and congestion would be punished for its efforts with reduced funding, whereas one that built highways it could not afford to maintain would receive a larger allocation. [____] Federal spending just substitutes for state spending Economist, 2011 (April 28, “Life in the Slow Lane,” http://www.economist.com/node/18620944) Formula-determined block grants to states are, at least, designed to leave important decisions to local authorities. But the formulas used to allocate the money shape infrastructure planning in a remarkably block-headed manner. Cost-benefit studies are almost entirely lacking. Federal guidelines for new construction tend to reflect politics rather than anything else. States tend to use federal money as a substitute for local spending, rather than to supplement or leverage it. The Government Accountability Office estimates that substitution has risen substantially since the 1980s, and increases particularly when states get into budget difficulties. From 1998 to 2002, a period during which economic fortunes were generally deteriorating, state and local transport investment declined by 4% while federal investment rose by 40%. State and local shrinkage is almost certainly worse now. 15 | P a g e States CP BDL Answers to: Devolution Bad [____] [____] State constitutional protections protect against the harms of devolution Helen Hershkoff, professor, New York University School of Law, 1999 (Fordham Law Review, March 1999, "Welfare Devolution & State Constitutions," p. 1430 -1) Second, state constitutional welfare provisions establish a principle of state responsibility for meeting the needs of the poor, curtailing devolution's assumption that subsidiary units are best placed to make decisions about social welfare programs. Subsidiary units are often smaller units, and are believed to have a greater structural capacity to protect human rights and t...
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This document was uploaded on 02/06/2014.

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