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Unformatted text preview: A gel electrophoresis. 5. Explain how DNA gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments by their size. 6. Describe how particular genes carried on plasmids can be used to trace bacterial contamination. 7. Describe the PCR process for amplifying DNA, including the role of the Taq polymerase and primers. 8. Explain how plasmids replicate and are transferred among bacteria in nature. 9. Explain the selective advantage of antibiotic resistance in nature, and when bacteria growing in nature benefit from having plasmids containing antibiotic resistance genes 10. Synthesize knowledge about antibiotic resistance, natural selection, and laboratory techniques used in the experiment to solve a real‐world epidemiological problem. 1 Week 1 Overarching Research Problem: Using Genes for Antibiotic Resistance to Trace Source(s) of Bacterial Contamination Create a heading in notebook: “Research Problem: Using Genes for Antibiotic Resistance to Trace Source(s) of Bacterial Contamination” Create a subheading: “Research Background Rationale” Research Problem Background Information: Take notes on the power point presentation provided by your TA Bacterial plasmids are small circular DNA molecules found in many bacteria and are separate from the larger main bacterial chromosome. They are replicated by the cell’s DNA replication enzymes and transmitted to daughter cells during cell division. Many plasmids contain genes that are useful to a bacterium under certain environmental conditions. For example, some plasmids contain genes for toxin products that kill competing bacteria. These plasmids also contain genes that make their hosts immune to the toxin. However, the most familiar plasmid‐borne genes are probably antibiotic resistance genes. Since antibiotics are produced by organisms such as fungi and bacteria, it is not surprising that the capacity to resist them arises naturally. In the presence of antibiotics, the antibiotic resistance genes found on plasmids give the bacteria with those plasmids a selective advantage. Human use of antibioti...
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2014 for the course BIO 110 taught by Professor Hass during the Fall '11 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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