Unformatted text preview: nors – courtyard and cult chambers with 2 shafts each, one of them giving access to the tomb chamber of Henu Hefeﬁ, el-Hagarsah Access to texts / affordability of painting Access to texts / affordability of painting vs. (Book of Two Ways) Tomb of the Two Brothers, Rifeh (late 12th dynasty) Mid-range ofﬁcials to lower class: Two types of tombs: shaft tombs and surface tombs Shaft tombs with small mudbrick superstructure – limestone stela inscribed (offering formulae, name, title) – shafts with burial chambers for one individual in cofﬁn; multiple chambers for families – modest tomb equipment Surface graves – shallow pits with or without a wooden cofﬁn – no surface architecture – few funerary goods So-called “soul houses” made from clay Abydos 335 (Petrie) Simple shaft tombs Simple pit burial of woman in wooden cofﬁn (Qau 409) Reed cofﬁn burial (Assiut) Tomb decoration of the provincial governors: Religious and funerary scenes: – funerary meal – funerary procession and the “pilgrimage to Abydos” “Daily life scenes”: – production and processing of food (plowing ﬁelds, baking bread, brewing beer, wine making), textiles and other commo- dities / supervision by the nomarch – scenes of the judgment and punishment of wrongdoers Scenes of the tomb owner hunting, ﬁshing and fowling Unique scenes – individual decoration – athletic games, wrestling, dancing – foreigners in Egyptian service – transport of a monumental statue Signiﬁcance of the scenes ? Situation: tomb owner buried underneath the cult chamber where the funerary cult was performed – do they represent scenes from the life and the funeral – a memorial for the family visiting the cult chamber and the deceased tomb owner? – do they recreate the desired world of afterlife within the nomarch’s tomb palace? – can the depictions be understood in a far more consequential way – the ofﬁcial would claim royal priviledges and power (hunting animals of the desert = defeating chaos etc.)...
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- Winter '14
- Ancient Egypt, Coffin, Middle Kingdom, rock tombs, copper units, inner golden cofﬁn