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Unformatted text preview: In the 19th dynasty – s'll displays the barrier 20th dynasty stele Direct encounter of worshipers with the divine Constant shins in the mutual rela'onships between the gods, the kings, and the rest of society. Distance between gods and private individuals was reduced throughout the 2nd millennium Major developments in this respect: – cult of sacred animals – ﬂourishing of feasts and processions in the New Kingdom: the divine images were brought out of the seclusion of their temples and carried in a portable shrine along a processional way; allowed for some interac'on Among the earliest literary evidence for personal piety in the New Kingdom are limestone ostraca from the pre‐Amarna period with short prayers addressed to Amun. Bear some of the earliest sen'ments of love and devo'on to a deity: “Amun‐Re, you are the beloved one, you are the only one!” Growth of personal piety entailed decrease of the exclusive role of the king and oﬃcial religion. Amun as the god who listened to his believers and who saved them from misery. Frequently called “the saviour”. Ramesside stelae Explosion of evidence for personal piety in Ramesside 'mes, dubbed by James H. Breasted in 1912 “the age of personal piety.” Emergence of the god Shed, the personiﬁca'on of the concept of the rescuing ac'vity of a deity. Famous biography of Simut Kiki provides a good example of some of the perceived dangers and illustrate the concept of a chosen personal deity, to whom the devotee was par'cularly afached and from whom protec'on was sought. Change in assump'ons about personal life: ethical life no longer guarantee for just retribu'on W...
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This document was uploaded on 02/07/2014.
- Winter '14