Unformatted text preview: la'onship between the deity and the bearer of the name. A few texts of the Middle Kingdom also make brief references to personal worship. This does by no means signify that personal religion did not exist prior to the New Kingdom but not everything could be expressed in texts and depic'ons in certain contexts. A set of rules applied (“decorum”) Sources • Archaeological sources (e.g., ear stelae, “Amun who hears prayers”). • – biographical inscrip'ons, • – hymns, • – vo've inscrip'ons and wishes on scarabs, • – “wisdom” or instruc'onal literature • – prayers (onen peniten'al) of individuals. The prayers of individuals, inscribed on stelae dedicated to the deity as vo've oﬀerings, express sorrow for wrongdoing and thanks for forgiveness. The bulk of our evidence comes from the Deir el‐Medina. Other places (Asyut). Stele of workmen from Deir el‐Medineh "Hearing ear stelae" – Un'l the Middle Kingdom, the rules of display prohibited to nonroyal persons to depict dei'es on their monuments; they appeared only in texts, or in the form of their emblems, and were almost exclusively of a funerary nature. – At the end of the Middle Kingdom, ﬁrst representa'ons of nonroyal persons worshiping a deity (but a barrier usually in the form of a column of inscrip'on or an oﬀering table separated the worshiper from the deity). – Dei'es regularly appear on nonroyal monuments only in the New Kingdom and later. Middle Kingdom stele of Amenemhat – gods appear only in names and the oﬀering formula Adora'on of the deiﬁed king Thutmose III...
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This document was uploaded on 02/07/2014.
- Winter '14