Unformatted text preview: 8, 6, 4‐8,7, a pain'ng of the sun god Re is executed on the bandage of a pa'ent: »Spell to be pronounced on a ﬁgure of Re, painted with blood of the Abdju ﬁsh on a bandage of royal linen which is put to the head of the pa'ent. This is a defence against enemies.« Wearing a lion amulet iden'ﬁes the deceased with the god Shu (Coﬃn Texts Spell 83) who according to spell 75 is magically even more powerful than Heka: • »Spell to be recited over the forepart of a lion, to be made of carnelian or vulture bone, to be at a man's neck when he descends to the necropolis. A protec'on in the form of the Ba of Shu. It means: the power of a man over the winds of the sky, to become an eﬀec've magician and the king of all the winds of the sky. He cannot die again, his enemies cannot take possession of him, not can any charm on earth hold him back in all eternity.« Book of the Dead Spell 160: »I am the amulet of feldspar which the hand of Thoth himself carries.« Importance of materials and colours – either religious signiﬁcance of minerals and colours, or analogy of pronounced sound (red colour; e.g., fayence tjehen sounded like tjehen "to afack", etc.) "drinking" of spells and magical books! Eﬃcacy vs. failure ? Magic as a technical, impersonal way to secure protec'on vs. Personal afachment to a deity Piety or Personal Piety a personal, individual expression of faith in and devo'on to a deity, as opposed to ins'tu'onalized religious prac'ce (tradi'onally the privilege of the king and priests delegated by him) • Evidence for personal religion prior to the New Kingdom is limited. • Some personal names hint at a personal re...
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- Winter '14
- Ancient Egypt, Deity, Middle Kingdom, personal piety