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Unformatted text preview: religious signiﬁcance of minerals and colours, or analogy of pronounced sound (red colour; e.g., fayence tjehen sounded like tjehen "to a^ack", etc.) Eﬃcacy vs. failure ? Piety or Personal Piety a personal, individual expression of faith in and devoJon to a deity, as opposed to ins0tu0onalized religious prac0ce Sources • Archaeological sources (e.g., ear stelae, “Amun who hears prayers”). • – biographical inscrip0ons, • – hymns, • – vo0ve inscrip0ons and wishes on scarabs, • – “wisdom” or instruc0onal literature • – prayers (o@en peniten0al) of individuals. The prayers of individuals, inscribed on stelae dedicated to the deity as vo0ve oﬀerings, express sorrow for wrongdoing and thanks for forgiveness. The bulk of our evidence comes from the Deir el‐Medina. Other places (Asyut). "Hearing ear stelae" Changes in "decorum" – rules of display: – Un0l the Middle Kingdom, the rules of display prohibited to nonroyal persons to depict dei0es on their monuments – At the end of the Middle Kingdom, ﬁrst representa0ons of nonroyal persons worshiping a deity – Dei0es regula...
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This document was uploaded on 02/07/2014.
- Winter '14