Extremities lips and anus long term flaccid paralysis

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Unformatted text preview: oss-allergy in patients allergic to sulfa drugs – neurological effects possible including: • tingling in the extremities, lips, and anus • long-term, flaccid paralysis and • convulsions. • Caution – teratogenic in first trimester of pregnancy Drugs to Reduce Fluid Formation Drugs Adrenergic Drugs (see also under category C) • Therapeutic Uses – wide angle primary glaucoma – glaucoma secondary to inflammation • given only after pupil constrictor (cholinergic agent) to counteract pupil dilatory effect • MOA – *act chiefly to decrease formation of aqueous humor • Side Effects – not serious • Caution – narrow angle glaucoma Drugs to Reduce Fluid Formation Drugs Beta blockers like Timolol maleate (Timoptic®) like Timolol maleate (Timoptic®) • betaxolol is β1 selective • levobunolol & timolol are nonselective • MOA – decrease fluid production (exact mechanism unknown) – does not change size of pupil (no interference night vision) – one dose can be effective for 24 hours • Therapeutic Uses - wide angle glaucoma • Cautions - asthma, heart disease (heart block, heart failure) Drugs to Reduce Fluid Formation Drugs Osmotic diuretics – May be given orally or parenterally • acute attacks • preoperative use Drugs to Dilate Pupil (Mydriatics) Drugs • Anticholinergic drugs – longer acting than adrenergic • Adrenergic Drugs Drugs to Dilate Pupil (Mydriatics) Drugs Anticholinergic drugs drugs • Therapeutic Uses – rest intraocular muscles and relieve pain of inflammation (cornea, ciliary muscle, iris, etc.) – eye exam - accurately measure refractive index – pre- and postoperatively for intraocular surgery • Side Effects - serious if systemically absorbed – dry mouth, tachycardia, fever (reduced sweating) • Caution - narrow angle primary glaucoma – can precipitate acute attack – effects may last up to four weeks Drugs to Dilate Pupil (Mydriatics) Drugs Adrenergic Drugs Drugs • Therapeutic Uses - recall: wide angle and secondary glaucoma as stated above (not because of dilation, however) – ocular exam (due to dilation - acts for short duration) – relieve congestion (constriction of conjunctival blood vessels) • Side Effects - usually not serious • Cautions – patients with cardiovascular disease (especially if taking β-blockers--may throw patient into heart failure) – narrow angle glaucom...
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