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Unformatted text preview: different chemical (R) groups to the 6aminopenicillanic acid nucleus Penicillins
• Originally - narrow spectrum
– chiefly gram positive
– effective against organisms causing most common
– Good Therapeutic Index: large doses may be given
(not normally toxic to humans).
• Caution if renal disease - high doses may cause CNS
stimulation and convulsions. • Semisynthetic derivatives extended spectrum
• Other synthetics more resistant to bacterial
penicillinase which is also called beta lactamase
(oxacillin, nafcillin, etc.)
• I.V. forms contain sodium and/or potassium - may cause
electrolyte imbalance in patient with kidney failure.
• If local anesthetic included is intended for IM not I.V. use
(cardiac arrhythmias, etc.) Beta-Lactams
• Considered quite safe as a group
• Adverse reactions do occur
Side Effects and Toxicities Hypersensitivity GI/Biliary/Hepatic Hem atologic Neurological Renal Electrolytes Sites of Enzyme Activity Amidase Lactamase Beta-La...
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- Spring '14