Many chemotherapeutic agents many especially used in

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Unformatted text preview: For slow growing cancers that don’t enter the cycle. • Plant Alkaloids (inhibits at metaphase) – less bone marrow depression – used for very ill patient. • Antimetabolites (inhibits DNA synthesis) – S phase of cycle – Resembles required substances(i.e. folic acid) • Antibiotics (toxic to all cells, all stages) – cycle nonspecific – interferes with RNA and DNA at many stages • Immune agents (aid to body defenses) Objective 10 Objective • Identify special problems of cancer therapy. What Makes Cancer Difficult to What Treat? Treat? • Metabolism of cells similar to normal cells – little selectivity of drug • Cancer cells not truly foreign invaders – body's immune system sometimes does not help with elimination • Drugs decrease immune system response – bone marrow and lymph nodes affected • Resistance develops Objective 11 Objective • For anticancer drugs, in general, identify the usual mechanism of action and common toxic effects. Many Chemotherapeutic Agents Many Especially Used in Combinations Especially • Mechanism of Action – Attack cell metabolism in general – Especially attack cell's ability to divide • Toxic Effects (rapidly dividing cells) – bone marrow and lymph nodes • anemias, bleeding problems, and depressed immune function – gastrointestinal epithelium (mouth sores, G.I. bleeding) • Note: Nausea often lasts hours, not days. • Lack of appetite creates a nutritional problem. – gonads – hair follicles (hair loss is reversible) and skin – Watch fluid and electrolyte balance (nausea). Need fluid to flush kidneys of uric acid produced with cell destruction. Attempt to minimize toxic effects: Attempt • Employ drugs in sequence and/or combinations – Resistance le...
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