Lecture_7_phylogenetics

Molecular classical phylogenec analysis morphological

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Unformatted text preview: day species; also called a phylogene?c tree. History of Phylogen?cs •  Un?l mid 1950’s phylogenies were constructed by experts based on their opinion (subjec?ve criteria) •  Since then, focus on objec<ve criteria for construc?ng phylogene?c trees –  Thousands of ar?cles in the last decades •  Important for many aspects of biology –  Classifica?on –  Understanding biological mechanisms 7 Morphological vs. Molecular •  Classical phylogene?c analysis: morphological features: number of legs, lengths of legs, etc. •  Modern biological methods allow to use molecular features –  Gene sequences –  Protein sequences •  Analysis based on homologous sequences in different species 9 From Sequences to Phylogene?cs Rat QEPGGLVVPPTDA Rabbit QEPGGMVVPPTDA Gorilla QEPGGLVVPPTDA Cat REPGGLVVPPTEG There are many possible types of sequences to use (e.g. Mitochondrial vs Nuclear proteins). 11 8 Morphological Topology Bonobo Chimpanzee Man Gorilla Sumatran orangutan Bornean orangutan Common gibbon Barbary ape Baboon White-fronted capuchin Slow loris Tree shrew Japanese pipistrelle Long-tailed bat Jamaican fruit-eating bat Horseshoe bat Little red flying fox Ryukyu flying fox Mouse Rat Vole Cane-rat Guinea pig Squirrel Dormouse Rabbit Pika Pig Hippopotamus Sheep Cow Alpaca Blue whale Fin whale Sperm whale Donkey Horse Indian rhino White rhino Elephant Aardvark Grey seal Harbor seal Dog Cat Asiatic shrew Long-clawed shrew Small Madagascar hedgehog Hedgehog Gymnure Mole Armadillo Bandicoot Wallaroo Opossum Platypus Archonta Glires Ungulata Carnivora Insectivora 10 Xenarthra Evolu?on and DNA Analysis: the Giant Panda Riddle...
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