Lecture_2_bio_intro

E n any r g or a purine y t or pyrimidine

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Unformatted text preview: heir peers reproduc9vely •  When these traits have a gene9c basis, selec9on can increase the prevalence of those traits, because the offspring will inherit those traits. This may correlate with the organism's ability to survive in its environment. •  Several different genotypes (and possibly phenotypes) may then coexist in a popula9on. In this case, their gene9c differences are called polymorphisms. Gene9c Muta9on Muta9ons and Selec9on •  The simplest is the point muta9on or subs9tu9on; here, a single nucleo9de in the genome is changed (single nucleo4de polymorphisms (SNPs)) •  Other types of muta9ons include the following: –  Inser4on. A piece of DNA is inserted into the genome at a certain posi9on –  Dele4on. A piece of DNA is cut from the genome at a certain posi9on –  Inversion. A piece of DNA is cut, flipped around and then re- inserted, thereby conver9ng it into its complement –  Transloca4on. A piece of DNA is moved to a different posi9on. –  Duplica4on. A copy of a piece of DNA is inserted into the genome •  While muta9ons can be detrimental to the affected individual, they can also in rare cases be beneficial; more frequently, neutral. •  O^en muta9ons have no or a negligible impact on survival and reproduc9on. •  Thereby muta9ons can increase the gene4c diversity of a popula9on, that is, the number of present polymorphisms. •  In combina9on with selec9on, this allow a species to adapt to changing environmental condi9ons and to survive in the long term....
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2014 for the course CS 425 taught by Professor Asaben-hur during the Fall '13 term at Colorado State.

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