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parnal automanon 1987 abi markets the rst sequencing

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Unformatted text preview: sequencing with chain ­terminaNng inhibitors” 1980 Messing: DNA cloning 15,000 1981 Messing: Messing and his colleagues developed “shotgun sequencing” method 25,000 1986 Hood et al.: ParNal AutomaNon 1987 ABI markets the first sequencing plaXorm, ABI 370 Landmarks in Sequencing Efficiency (bp/person/year) Year Event 50,000 1990 NIH begins large ­scale sequencing trials of bacteria genomes. 200,000 1995 Craig Venture and Hamilton Smith at the InsNtute for Genomic Research (TIGR) published the first complete genome of a free ­living organism in Science. This marks the first use of whole ­genome shotgun sequencing, eliminaNng the need for iniNal mapping efforts. 2001 A drai of the human genome was published in Science. 2001 A drai of the human genome was published in Nature. 50,000,000 2002 454 Life Sciences comes out with a pyrosequencing machine. 100,000,000 2008 Next generaNon sequencing machines arrive. Huge 2011 Oxford Nanopore: 600 Million base pairs per hour. Robert Holley and team in 1965 Watson and Crick Messing: World’s most ­cited scienNst Francis and Collins: Private Human Genome project. Next ­Gen Sequencing PlaXorms 454/Roche GS ­20/FLX (2005) PacBio RS (2009 ­2010) 3rd generaNon? Illumina HISeq (2007) Comparison of NGS PlaXorms Technology Reads per run Average Read Length 454 (Roche) 400,000 250 ­1000bp SoLID (ABI) 88 ­132 Million 35bp bp per run 70 Million Types of err...
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