Ex 8 - Lab Exercise #8 Objectives: At the conclusion of...

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1 Lab Exercise #8 Objectives: At the conclusion of this lab, students will be able to: Reproduce, understand, and explain the metabolic pathways which occur in alcoholic fermentation and aerobic respiration. Analyze data produced by simulations of these metabolic pathways. Apply basic enzymatic theory learned in prior labs to the explanation of the metabolic pathways of alcoholic fermentation and aerobic respiration. Safety Precautions: Goggles should be worn by all persons in the lab when handling DCPIP and succinate. Both of these materials should be disposed of in the hood. Format: Lab partners will work together to complete each experiment. However, it is crucial that every student understand each concept covered in lab. Be sure to spend as much time as necessary to understand the concepts covered. You are responsible for the information covered in lab, and should ask your instructor for help if you are having difficulty . During the last two labs, you studied the effect of a number of variables on the enzyme peroxidase. You learned that both enzyme concentration and substrate concentration affect the activity of an enzymatic reaction. This week, you will study the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of a fermentation reaction; and you will study the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of an aerobic respiration reaction. Energy Requirements of Cells Life would not be possible without energy. Energy is required for biosynthesis of macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids. Without energy, cells would be incapable of carrying-out the biochemical processes that keep them alive. Many biochemical reactions within the cell require energy in order for the reaction to take place even in the presence of an enzyme. If cells cannot function properly, the multicellular organism composed of those cells cannot function properly. Energy is the “ability to do work” and exists in two states; kinetic energy and potential energy. Matter in motion contains kinetic energy. A ball rolling down a hill has kinetic energy because it is in motion and work is being done. Potential energy is energy that is stored and therefore has the “potential” to do work. The same ball at the top of the hill has potential to do work. Potential energy can be stored within chemical bonds. When those bonds are broken, the energy released, kinetic energy, can be used to do work. The primary potential energy in the cell is stored in the high energy phosphate bonds of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). ATP consists of the nucleotide adenosine found in DNA with two additional phosphate groups attached (Figure 1, page 15). Cells manufacture ATP from glucose . The ATP can then be used by the cell to do work.
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2 When chemical bonds are broken, energy is released to do work (kinetic energy) and this energy may be transferred to new bonds. Most chemical reactions within a cell involve the transfer of electrons and are called oxidation-reduction reactions. An oxidation involves the removal of an electron from an atom or molecule.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOSCI 0050 taught by Professor Carollafarve during the Fall '07 term at Pittsburgh.

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Ex 8 - Lab Exercise #8 Objectives: At the conclusion of...

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