Djdunn 7 2 laminar flow theory the following work only

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Unformatted text preview: viscometer. c. British Standard 188 Falling Sphere Viscometer. d. Any form of Rotational Viscometer Note that this covers the E.C. exam question 6a from the 1987 paper. © D.J.DUNN 7 2. LAMINAR FLOW THEORY The following work only applies to Newtonian fluids. 2.1 LAMINAR FLOW A stream line is an imaginary line with no flow normal to it, only along it. When the flow is laminar, the streamlines are parallel and for flow between two parallel surfaces we may consider the flow as made up of parallel laminar layers. In a pipe these laminar layers are cylindrical and may be called stream tubes. In laminar flow, no mixing occurs between adjacent layers and it occurs at low average velocities. 2.2 TURBULENT FLOW The shearing process causes energy loss and heating of the fluid. This increases with mean velocity. When a certain critical velocity is exceeded, the streamlines break up and mixing of the fluid occurs. The diagram illustrates Reynolds coloured ribbon experiment. Coloured dye is injected into a horizontal flow. When the flow is laminar the dye passes along without mixing with the water. When the speed of the flow is increased turbulence sets in and the dye mixes with the surrounding water. One explanation of this transition is that it is necessary to change the pressure loss into other forms of energy such as angular kinetic energy as indicated by small eddies in the flow. Fig.2.1 2.3 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS In chapter 2 it was explained that a boundary layer is the layer in which the velocity grows from zero at the wall (no slip surface) to 99% of the maximum and the thickness of the layer is denoted δ. When the flow within the boundary layer becomes turbulent, the shape of the boundary layers waivers and when diagrams are drawn of turbulent boundary layers, the mean shape is usually shown. Comparing a laminar and turbulent boundary layer reveals that the turbulent layer is thinner than the laminar layer. Fig.2.2 © D.J.DUNN 8 2.4 CRITICAL VELOCITY - REYNOLDS NUMBER When a fluid flows in a pipe at a volumetric flow rate Q m3/s the average velocity is defined um = Q A A is the cross sectional area. The Reynolds number is defined as R e = ρu m D u m D = µ ν If you check the units of Re you will see that there are none and that it is a dimensionless number. You will learn more about such numbers in a later section. Reynolds discovered that it was possible to predict the velocity or flow rate at which the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurred for any Newtonian fluid in any pipe. He also discovered that the critical velocity at which it changed back again was different. He found that when the flow was gradually increased, the change from laminar to turbulent always occurred at a Reynolds number of 2500 and when the flow was gradually reduced it changed back again at a Reynolds number of 2000. Normally, 2000 is taken as the critical value. WORKED EXAMPLE 2.1 Oil of density 860 kg/m3 has a kinematic viscosity of 40 cSt. Calculate the critical velocity when it flows in a pipe 50 mm bore diameter. SOLUTION u mD ν R ν 2000x40x10 −6 um = e = = 1.6 m/s D 0.05 Re = © D.J.DUNN 9 2.5 DERIVATION OF POISEU...
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