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How much is due to genetics?
How much to environmental factors? Twin Studies
Twin Identical twins (MZ) 100% shared
Fraternal twins (DZ) 50% shared
Just like other siblings
Environment becomes a control
Finds support for delinquency and selecting of friends
Problems? Methods, sampling, return rates; how much are twins treated the same? ADOPTION STUDIES
ADOPTION Perhaps one way to gage biology’s influence is to:
Look at children born of same parents but raised apart
Mednick’s study – 14,427 adpoted boys
Noncriminal biological parents OR adoptive parents – 13.5% had convictions Noncriminal biological & at least 1 adoptive parent criminal resulted in 14.7%
At least 1 biological parent and non
At least 1 of each – 24.5%
How much does environment impact this?
These studies have methodological problems… Methodological Problems
Methodological How is crime defined – type of behavior included; using incarcerated mothers; etc
Varying amounts of time spent with biological paren...
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- Spring '14
- Cesare Lombroso, TOTAL CRIMINAL POPULATION, EARNEST A. HOOTON, EVOLUTINARY THROW BACKS, Noncriminal biological parents