Lecture 13

The past is behind but aymara chilean andes puts the

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Unformatted text preview: al ▪  No faster for compatible vertical than incompatible vertical   Mandarin ▪  Faster for compatible horizontal than incompatible horizontal ▪  Faster for compatible vertical than incompatible vertical Time again—results Time again—discussion   So despite some controversy, there’s evidence that Mandarin speakers both talk and think about time vertically, but English speakers don’t Time across languages   The axis of time   The direction of time   The dimensionality of time   Absolute time Locating the future   In English, and in most languages studied, the future is described as though it were ahead and the past is behind   But Aymara (Chilean Andes), puts the past in front and the future behind. nayra eye, front, past nayra pacha front time = past qhipa back, behind, future qhipa pacha back time = future Locating the future   Questions:   What is the nature of these differences in metaphor? Do English and Aymara simple have metaphors that are mirror images of one another?   How can we tell whether these metaphorical differences correlate with conceptual differences?   Solution: Look at gestures (Núñez & Sweetser, 2006)   They are naturally occurring in real language use   Metaphorical gestures often accompany language   They are mostly unconscious, so they reveal uncontrolled aspects of cognitive processing   Prediction   Aymara speakers will use past ­front gestures   Spanish speakers will use past ­behind gesture Example   Gestures co ­timed with words translated as “from last year to this year” Example   Gesture co ­timed with words translated as “future time” Results Ppts who used only past ­front or past ­behind gesture...
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