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COMD+Ch+10+student - "He turned down the job...

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“He turned down the job.”  down=participle “He turned down the alley.”  down=preposition How can you tell the difference?
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“Down the alley, he turned.” – grammatical If it’s a preposition, then it is the beginning of a  prepositional phrase and it can be moved along  with its object (the following NP) to a different  part of the sentence. So, ‘down’ in “He turned down the alley” is a  preposition.
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              S                           VP    NP                               PP                                             NP    pro       V            Prep     Art      N     He     turned       down    the     alley
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If it’s a participle and you try to move it  together with the following NP, you get an  ungrammatical structure. “down the job, he turned” is ungrammatical  so ‘down’ in “He turned down the job” is a  participle.  
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            S NP                        VP                    V                          NP          Pro      V               part         Art         N He   turned       down       the      job
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Participles can’t move together with  the following NP, but they can move  by themselves to the other side of the  following NP – “he turned the job  down.” – participle movement  is the  transformational rule applied here.
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Phrase structure rules tell us that a  prepositional phrase has a preposition  followed by a NP, so a preposition cannot be  moved to the other side of the following NP. *He turned the alley down.
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              S                           VP    NP                               PP                                             NP    pro       V            Prep     Art      N   * He     turned       down    the     alley
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Derivation of- “He turned down the job.” “He turned the job down.” Both mean the same thing – have the same  deep structure.
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