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Unformatted text preview: e standards: US does not promote human rights or democracy in oil­rich countries that sell oil to the US (Iran under the Shah; Saudi Arabia today) • Global warming: US government refuses to invest in a man­to­the moon­like project to create an alternative energy source, though Obama plans to make a major investment in alternatives • Animosity toward US: America’s military presence in the oil­rich Muslim­majority world is resented by the people there, has fueled anti­American sentiment; US could reduce its influence in the Middle East if it had an alternative energy source What Drives US Foreign Policy What Cultural Influences in Presidential Elections – The public tends to like “tough” presidents, those who take a harder line against America’s enemies The “tough” image has contributed to Republican victories: » Nixon (1972), Reagan (1980), Bush41 (1988), and Bush43 (2004) each defeated their respective Democratic opponents, in part, for being “tougher” Occasional Exceptions: » Obama (D) won easily in 2008, Bill Clinton (D) also won easily in 1992 and 1996, and Jimmy Carter (D) narrowly defeated Ford in 1976 » Why did these Democrats win? • Foreign policy was not an issue or was drowned out by more important issues (e.g., the economy, Watergate) • 2008: The economy was the most dominant issue…McCain was viewed as stronger on dealing with the terrorist threat, but terrorism was not an issue for voters What Drives US Foreign Policy What Historical/Inertial Forces – Historically, there have been long periods of continuity in US foreign policy Each sparked by major attacks on America—and—each marked by America asserting a right to “preventive” self­ defense » Monroe Doctrine (1823–1898) – a policy of US hegemony over the Western Hemisphere, sparked by British burning of Washington DC (1814) » Truman Doctrine (1946–1991) – a policy of US hegemony over the “free world”, sparked by Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (1941)— and—the prospect of a potential future attack from the Soviet Union The 9/11 Attack precipitated the B...
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