Anthropology_Midterm_Study_Guide

Anthropology_Midterm_Study_Guide - 10:01:00 PM Anthropology...

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16/10/2007 21:01:00 Anthropology Midterm Study Guide     Five Different Types of Anthropology Cultural/Socio-Cultural Anthropology Living people, all aspects of life o Legal, medical, economic anthropologies Archaeology Helps to understand past and sequences of life that existed Anthropological Linguistics Why languages change, how language is used in different societies Physical/Biological Anthropology Human evolution, learned by studying fossil remains Applied Anthropology Not added until the 1980s, take other 4 branches and put it into practical use Different Anthropological Approaches Holistic or Holism Other social sciences (e.g. economics, psychology) investigate a particular  segment of human experience Anthropology looks at all the different dimensions of human social life, and  relates them to each other Anthropology does not take a specialized or partial view of  Homo Sapiens rather a holistic view
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Fieldwork and Participation Observation Cultural or sociocultural anthropologists use the fieldwork method of  participation observation to collect their data Ethnology This is the name given to the comparative, cross-cultural study of customs  and beliefs By comparing and contrasting the practices of different societies,  anthropologists are able to offer explanations as to why certain cultural  patterns exist Historical Each culture is a distinct product of a particular history In order to understand a particular culture, it is essential to reconstruct the  history under which it evolved Culture cannot be compared Evolutionary Anthropologists try to understand simple and earlier ways of societies and  cultures before they undertake studying complex societies and cultures The evolutionary process by which how sociocultural changes occurred  dominated early anthropology Anthropology and Science “Anthropology is a unique discipline because it straddles the social sciences,  the humanities, and the biological sciences as well” The humanistic side is oriented towards questions of meaning Its scientific side is oriented toward questions of explanation The results of social scientific inquiry are never absolute and final, they are  only probabilities subject to future revision Different Anthropologists and Their Contributions Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, Primitive Culture , Great Britain (1871) First textbook on sociocultural anthropology
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o Never did fieldwork; he got his information from missionaries and  others who were doing their PhD work Unilinear Evolution o
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