Biochemistry_3rd_Exam_Study_Guide[1] - Biochemistry 3rd...

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Biochemistry 3 rd Exam Study Guide Fatty acids are long chains of hydrocarbons Unsaturated = the presence of double bonds Name of Fatty Acid Number of Carbons Unsaturated/Saturate d # of Double Bonds Myristic Acid 14 Saturated 0 Palmitic Acid 16 Saturated 0 Stearic Acid 18 Saturated 0 Oleic Acid 18 Unsaturated 1 Linoleic Acid 18 Unsaturated 2 Linolenic Acid 18 Unsaturated 3 Arachodonic Acid 20 Unsaturated 4 Triacylglycerides are 3 fatty acids hooked via an ester bond to a glycerol backbone. Mechanism is condensation Function is stored energy and insulation Phospholipids are triacylglycerols with 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphate hooked to a glycerol backbone The original fatty acid is removed via hydrolysis Type A blood has the A antigen (N acetyl galactose amine) on its RBC and an antibody against type B blood Type B blood has the B antigen (galactose) on its RBC and an antibody against type A blood Type AB blood has both antigens, and neither antibodies Is the universal recipient because it does not contain any antibodies Type O blood has neither antigens, and both antibodies Is the universal donor because it does not contain any antigens If blood is “+” it contains the RH antigen; if it is “-“ then it does not have it Condition to be aware of: Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn: The mother has negative blood, but the baby has positive blood. It affects the 2 nd baby that the mother carries that has positive blood, because after the first pregnancy, she has built antibodies against the RH factor, and thus attempts to fight the RH factor in the 2 nd baby’s blood. Phospholipases are enzymes that break down phospholipids Phospholipase A1 removes the fatty acid from position 1 on the glycerol backbone Phospholipase A2 removes the fatty acid from position 2 on the glycerol backbone Also catalyzes the reaction to produce lung surfactant (dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline) which keeps the alveoli from collapsing Also releases arachidonic acid from the cell membrane Phospholipase C removes the phosphate portion of the phospholipid from the glycerol backbone Arachidonic acid derivatives are released from the membrane by the action of phospholipase A2 enzyme This enzyme is blocked by cortisol Produces prostaglandin (inflammatory), eicosanoids (hormone-like), and thromboxanes (platelet cohesion) Enzyme: cyclo-oxygenase
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o Blocked by aspirin Produces leukotrienes (muscle contraction) Enzyme: lipo-oxygenase Membranes are considered to be fluid-mosaic because: there is movement within, and they are made up of many different components (phospholipids, proteins, other lipids, sterols, carbs). Arrange as an ampipathic structure
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course BIOCHEM 1 taught by Professor Friesen during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Biochemistry_3rd_Exam_Study_Guide[1] - Biochemistry 3rd...

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