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gross_anatomy_2_lecture_outline[1] - Thoracic Wall Consists...

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Thoracic Wall Consists of skin, fascia, nerves, vessels, muscles, and bones Function is protection of the internal organs: resisting negative internal pressures generated by the elastic recoil of the lungs and inspiratory movements Skeleton of Thoracic Wall Includes 12 pairs of ribs and costal cartilages 12 thoracic vertebrae and IVDs, and the sternum Ribs and Costal Cartilages Ribs 1-7 are “true” ribs that attach directly to the sternum through their own costal cartilage Ribs 8-10 are “false” ribs that have cartilage that is joined to the cartilage of the rib just superior to them; thus their connection to the sternum is indirect Ribs 11-12 are “floating” ribs because they do not even indirectly connect to the sternum they end in the posterior abdominal musculature Ribs 3-9 are “typical”: o they have a wedge shaped head and two facets that are separated by the crest of the head. One facet is for articulation with the numerically corresponding vertebra and one facet is for the vertebra superior to it. o They also have a neck that connects the head with the body at the level of the tubercle o A tubercle at the junction of the neck and body. It articulates (smooth articular part) with the corresponding transverse process of the vertebra (rough non-articular part) for attachment with the costotransverse ligament. o A body that is most noted for its angle. Ribs 1, 2, 10 and 12 are “atypical”: o Rib 1 is the broadest, shortest, and most sharply curved. It has 2 grooves crossing the surface for the subclavian vessels the grooves are separated by a scalene tubercle and a ridge. o Rib 2 is thinner than rib 1, has less of a curve, and is much longer. It has 2 facets on its head for articulation with the bodies of T1 and T2. o Ribs 10-12 only have 1 facet on their heads. o Ribs 11-12 are short and have no necks or tubercles Costal cartilage adds elasticity to the thoracic wall The spaces and neurovascular structures are names according to the rib forming the superior border of the space o There are 11 intercostal spaces, and 1 subcostal space Thoracic Vertebrae Typical thoracic vertebrae have demifacets on their bodies for articulation with the heads of the ribs Atypical thoracic vertebra have full facets on their bodies for articulation with the heads of the ribs Thoracic vertebrae have costal facets on their transverse processes for articulation with the tubercles of the ribs o Except for inferior 2 or 3 thoracic vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae have long inferiorly slanting spinous processes Sternum Flat, vertically elongated bone that consists of 3 parts: o Manubrium superior part of sternum; trapezoidal shaped bone that lies at the levels of T3-T4 Thick superior border is indented by the jugular notch On each side of the jugular notch is a clavicular notch which articulates with the sternal end of the clavicle The manubrium and the sternum lie on slightly different planes
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