chapter1-AppendixA-m4-ziavras

Clocked dram 25600 mbitschip 4000x 256000000 xtors

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Unformatted text preview: per module, 16 pins/chip • 13 Mbytes/sec • Latency: 225 ns • (no block transfer) • 2000 Double Data Rate Synchr. (clocked) DRAM • 256.00 Mbits/chip (4000X) • 256,000,000 xtors, 204 mm2 • 64-bit data bus per DIMM, 66 pins/chip (4X) • 1600 Mbytes/sec (120X) • Latency: 52 ns (4X) • Block transfers (page mode) DIMM: Dual In-line Memory Module & 64-bit data path SDRAM: Synchronous Dynamic RAM •DDR: 200-400MHz, 2.5V, 2-bit prefetch buffer •DDR2: 400-800MHz, 1.8V, 4-bit prefetch buffer •DDR3: 800-1600MHz, 1.5V, 8-bit prefetch buffer •I/O speed = 4* memory speed, 240 pins Some material is adapted from D. Culler & D. Patterson (UCB) S. Ziavras Latency Lags Bandwidth (last ~20 years) • Performance Milestones 10000 1000 Relative Memory BW 100 Improve ment Disk • Memory Module: 16bit plain DRAM, Page Mode DRAM, Page 32b, 64b, SDRAM, DDR SDRAM (4x,120x) • Disk: 3600, 5400, 7200, 5400 7200 10000, 15000 RPM (8x, 143x) 10 (Latency improvement = Bandwidth improvement) 1 1 10 100 (latency = simple operation w/o contention BW = best-case) Relative Latency Improvement Some material is adapted from D. Culler & D. Patterson (UCB) S. Ziavras LANs: Archaic vs. Modern • Ethernet 802.3 • Year of Standard: 1978 • 10 Mbits/s link link speed • Latency: 3000 µsec • Shared media • Coaxial cable Coaxial Cable: • Ethernet 802.3ae • Year of Standard: 2003 • 10,000 Mbits/s (1000X) link speed • Latency: 190 µsec (15X) • Switched media • Category 5 copper wire Plastic Covering Braided outer conductor Insulator Copper core Some material is adapted from D. Culler & D. Patterson (UCB) "Cat 5" is 4 twisted pairs in bundle Twisted Pair: Copper, 1mm thick, twisted to avoid antenna effect S. Ziavras Latency Lags Bandwidth (last ~20 years) 10000 • Performance Milestones 1000 Network Relative Memory BW 100 Improve ment • Ethernet: 10Mb, 100Mb, 100Mb 1000Mb, 10000 Mb/s (16x,1000x) • Memory Module: 16bit plain DRAM, Page Mode DRAM, Page 32b, 64b, SDRAM,...
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