Chapter 41

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Unformatted text preview: s Bile also aids in the destruc_on of red blood cells that are no longer func_onal and breaks down toxins Enzyma3c Hydrolysis in the Diges3ve System The churning of the stomach aids the diges3ve process Absorp3on in the Small Intes3ne: Takes place in the Jejunum and Ileum (surface area 300 m2) Vein carrying blood to hepa&c portal vein Increase Microvilli surface area Increase surface area * Absorp3on: movement of molecules from lumen of villi of small intes_ne → through the epithelial cells that line the villi → into the blood capillaries and lacteal in villi Fructose: uses facilitated diffusion AAs, glucose, small pep&des, vitamins: use ac_ve transport Absorp3on of Fats in Small Intes3nes Fat Droplet * Lumen Lipase Fa3y acids and monoglycerides diffuse into epithelial cells Epithelial Cell * Chylomicrons are water soluble globules that are too large to pass through membranes of capillaries Chylomicrons leave epithelial cells by exocytosis and enter lacteals – lymph vessels Flow of nutrients from villus: h3p://www.imperial.edu/~thomas.morrell/small_intes_ne_files/image004.jpg Monosaccharides, AAs, nitrogenous bases, ribose, deoxyribose, phosphates: Villi capillaries → hepa_c portal vein → liver → heart Fats: Chylomicrons → lacteals → larger lymph vessels in lympha_c system → large vein → heart Liver regulates the distribu3on of nutrients to the rest of the body Glucose: 90 to 100 mg/dl * glucose → glycogen Glucose: 200 mg/dl Example: Aoer a meal, blood glucose levels are high in the hepa_c portal vein When glucose is in excess and energy demands are low, glucose is converted to glycogen within liver cell * Key Points: Blood that leaves liver has a very different nutrient balance than blood that enters liver * Absorp3on in Large Intes3ne: Colon, cecum, and rectum Large I...
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