Chapter 12 Lecture notes

Only 1 chromosome shown in this example chromosome

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Unformatted text preview: es and to help control gene activity Chromosome duplicaAon and distribuAon during cell division: Chromosomes are usually long and thin and are only in a condensed form when dividing Only 1 chromosome shown in this example Chromosome Arms 1 molecule Chromosomes replicate centromere Centromere Region where two sister chroma+ds are +ghtly a^ached Sister chroma+ds a^ached by Cohesins: adhesive protein complexes Sister chroma+ds ----2 molecules Separa+on of sister Chroma+ds Centromere Daughter Cell Daughter Cell Sister chroma+ds are considered “one” chromosome when a^ached Each cell has an individual chromosome that is iden+cal to the one in the parent cell 1 molecule 1 molecule Mitosis: Occurs in soma+c cells (2n to 2n) Produces two daughter cells that are gene+cally iden+cal Meiosis: Occurs in gametes (2n to 1n) Produces four daughter cells that are gene+cally different Cytokinesis: division of the cytoplasm Haploid Gametes (n=23) Diploid Zygote (2n = 46) Mitosis and Development: makes 200 trillion soma+c cells Mul+cellular adults Division of the nucleus Phases of the cell cycle Cell grows and chromosomes are duplicated Cell grows First Gap Second Gap Cell Divides Interphase 90% of the cell cycle: 1.  G1 – “first gap” 2.  S – “synthesis” 3.  G2 – “second gap” Cell grows M Phase = Mitosis and Cytokinesis Mitosis is broken down into five stages: 1.  Prophase 2.  Prometaphase 3.  Metaphase 4.  Anaphase 5.  Telophase What is the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis? Mitosis is the division of the nucleus, and cyt Mito+c Spindle MitoAc Spindle Centrosome: microtubule organizing center in animals contains 2 centrioles As...
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