Sept.10 - Composition of Cells Cytology The Biology of the...

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Composition of Cells Cytology – The Biology of the Cell Cellular life (not viruses) - Bacteriophage The Scale of life… - Organisms range in mass over 21 orders of magnitude - Most cells fall within a fairly narrow range - To survive, cells must exchange molecules with their environment - Exchange velocity is directly related to the cell surface area relative to its volume (read 6.7 in text) - There are exceptions, however… o For example, the Thiomargarita - Caulobacter cescentus o Bacterium that inhabits low nutrient, freshwater environments o When starved for phosphate, its stalk grows longer to increase its surface area. - Humans use this strategy too…. o Intestinal epithelial cells absorb nutrients from the food we eat. o Microvilli increase the area of absorption. - Eukaryotic cells are generally larger than prokaryotic cells, because they are more organized - The have membrane bound subcellular compartments to organize cellular functions. Prokaryote - Nucleoid - Generally are small, simple looking cells when compared to eukaryotic cell - Bacteria + Archaea - Paraphyletic group consists of ancestor and some but not all of its decedents (not nested) - Nucleus - Complex sub cellular structure (membrane-bound compartments) Microscopy Basics: - Light microscopy: o
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