8 discovery of reportable behaiour researchers feel

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Unformatted text preview: ers feel cross-pressures when they become aware of illegal behaviour Must weigh obligations to protect the safety of society with the demands to maintain confidentiality of research subjects SAFETY Researchers are expected to take no action that could result in the harm of research subjects Harm includes physical, emotional, mental and economic harm STRAIN THEORY Robert Merton Believed that deviance was result of strain caused by malintegration od cultural and social structures of societies o Mal-integration: not a good fit If you cant achieve something, causes strain o Invent illegitimate ways to get what we want Lack of fit between the cultural goals that people are encouraged to seek and the means available to achieve those goals Strain creates various types of deviance including o Innovation, ritualism, retreats and rebellion Merton’s argument was criticized because he assumed that official stats on crime were reliable Failed to account for middle-class and upper class crime and deviance Conformity accept goals accepts means (most people) Innovation accepts goals rejects means (criminal) Ritualism rejects goals accepts means (bureaucrat) Retreats reject goals reject means (drop outs) Rebellion accept/reject goals accept/reject means (rebel) CULTURAL SUPPORT THEORY Focuses on how cultural belief create and sustain deviant behaviour Edwin Sutherland argued that people become deviant because they are exposed to learning experiences that make deviance more likely. o Learning the specific drives, motives, attitudes and rationalizations is essential to becoming deviant People need to learn how to believe that deviant behaviour is acceptable despite the reality that many people consider the behaviour as repugnant Cultural support theory is criticized for being tautological (circular reasoning) Inferring values and actions from behaviour is problematic CONTROL THEORY Deviant bahviour do not require sophisticated form of explanation o Occurs whenever it is allowed to Social controls are weak or broken Durkheim suicide is more likely when people are disconnected from social regulation and left to their own resources Hirschi argued that deviance was the result of a weak social bond in individuals In collaboration with Michael Gottfredson, hirschi argued that deviance is best understood as behaviour that results from impulsivity in people They possess low self-control TRANSACTIONAL CHARACTER OF DEVIANCE Strain, cultural support and control theories encourage a focus on individuals when explaining deviant behaviours Others believe that attention should be directed to situations rather than individuals Luckenbill has argued that murder is the result of situations in which people feel offended and turn to violence (situated transaction) o Stage 1:eventual victim does something to offender o Stage 2:offender defines what victim has said/done as offensive o Stage 3: offender makes countermove o Stage 4:victim responds in aggressive manner o Stage 5: brief violent ecvhange o Stage 6: battle is over Randall Collins way in which the situation unfolds MAKING SENSE OF THE FACTS OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR Deviance is not randomly distributed throughout society Highly correlated with age, gender, location GENDER Males are more likely to be involved in crime o More likely to be involved in disapproved behaviour than females Feminists have argued that sociological literature has ended to ignore the deviant behaviour of women More male victims Decreasing crime...
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This document was uploaded on 02/10/2014.

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