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Textbook_notes_-_SOC101_for_Barry_McClinchey_on_2013-12-04_at_University_of_Waterloo

Textbook_notes_-_SOC101_for_Barry_McClinchey_on_2013-12-04_at_University_of_Waterloo

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Sociological Theory 02/10/2013 3:38:00 PM WHY THEORY x Antonio Gramsci: everyone is a social theory o Uses intellect to explain society x C.Wright Mills: connect personal problems with larger societal forces BINARY THINKING x Use of either/or propositions x Born unto social class but still have choice x Social theory focuses in pre-existing structure ORGIN OF GLOBALIZATION x Anthony Giddens: term juggernaut x Karl Marx : old ways destroyed before modern capitalism can be introduced to asia BIRTH OF SOCIOLOGY IN THE AGE OF REVOLUTION x Aguste Comte: coined the term sociology o Tried to establish religion of humanity (he was pope) o Social thinking passes through 3 stages (laws) 1. Assumption of world governed by gods 2. Nature replaced belief of gods 3. Application of science to understand social world x Povitism: assumes there is something to discover x Herbert Spencer: society is a struggle for existence x Karl Marx: sought to discover laws of modern capitalism CLASSICAL SOCIOLOGY x Max Weber: people act according to what they intend and believe o Subjective perspective needed x Comte: society stays the same over time but is constantly changing x Functionalism: if something exists over time, it performs necessary function that is important for social reproduction x Marx: change world not understand it x CONFLICT THEORISTS: weber, ritzer o Change comes from conflict x Classical theorist o Émile Durkheim (functionalist) Focused on institutions, what people build together
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Simple societies held together by religious celebrations and gift giving( collective effervescence) People don’t live by single code of right and wrong (ANOMIE) no collective conscious Jean Baulliaud: modern individualism paradoxically expressed by rights of mass consumption Organic solidarity: everyone in society plays part in maintaining social life à Must learn to perform consecutively Suicide: dependent on strength or weakness of individuals connection with society o Karl Marx (conflict theory) Theory explains society’s evolution Distinguish between tradition and modernism=rise of capitalism Serfs=lower class aristocracies=upper class Religion pacifies workers à Opium of the people to dull the pain of opression Alienation: separate from something à Proletariat, exploited by capitalists POWER AND RESISTANCE x Everyone has power and the ability to resist x Body is the site of control and resistance x Michael Foucault: people learn to regulate themselves x W.E.B. Du Bois and the veil of racism o First black sociologist o 20 th century fundamental problem=colour line x Max Weber o Studied individualism in capitalist context o Formal rationality: calculating efficient means to obtain goal o Authority occurs when societies follow existing customs Charismatic: leaders influence à Dies with leader or turns into tradition Traditional: royal family o Disenchantment: science eroding mystery and supernatural beliefs
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o Rise of European capitalism Æ consequence of protestant reformation o Facts open to objective analysis o
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