The early 20th century stresses importance of

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Unformatted text preview: Stresses importance of childhood experience, biological drives, unconscious processes, and cultural influences He argued that the mind consisted od the id, ego, superego o Aspects of ourselves, what makes us human o Id: impulsive, pleasure seeking, unconscious component of the mind o Superego: refers to the part of the mind that has internalized societal restrains. Controls id and ego. o Ego: balances the two in cognitive, conscious though process Parents play key role in guiding the ego and repressing the id Freud believed that all humans progress through stages of development at different rates Stages include o Oral O.A.P.L.G o Anal o Phallic o Latent o Genital phases Some people remain in one state for an inordinate amount of time( fixation) or return to a stage (regression) If passes through all stages, well developed super-ego o Channels libidinal forces in appropriate directions Controversial because sexuality driven CHILD DEVELOPMENT FRAMES OF REFERANCE Erikson viewed socialization as life-long process o 8 stages of human development trust vs mistrust to integrity vs despair Piaget is another well-known psychologist who concentrated on childhood stages of development. (cognitive) He also analyzed importance of social structure o 4 cumulative stages sensorimotor period pre-operational period concrete operational period formal operational period o children develop cognitive abilities through interaction and adaptation adapt by assimilation Kohlberg extended piaget work by considering stages of moral development. o Few people reach the highest stages of moral development o Research included asking children questions about morals SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISTS FRAME OF REFERANCE Symbolic interactionism is one of the most salient sociological perspectives on socialization These theorists examine interactions individuals have with others and environment believe that o Humans must be studied on their own level’ Sharing of meanings o An analysis of society is the most valuable method in understanding society Individual behaviour needs to be contextualized o At birth, the human infant is asocial Favours nurture Born with impulses and potential to become social being o A socialized being is an actor as well a reactor Humans are minded. Actively respond Significant others influence behaviour Social self o Key idea symbolic interactionists use to understand human development o People occupy different statuses and roles Status changes depending on social setting Always undergoing change through others including significant others Popular symbolic interactionists include George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley Mead Social forces are primary source of human behaviour GEORGE HERBERT MEADE Believed that people were born tabula rasa, or as blank slates Argued that the social self consisted of spontaneous I and the socialized me Although the me becomes predominant over time, the I continues to exist The generalized other refers to that part of the social self that has inculcated social expectations Children generally pass through three stages in the development of their social selves o These stages include… play stage: models significant others game stage: pretend to be other people generalized other stage : learning cultural values and rules become consistent and predictable FUNCTIONALISM Place emphasis on the role and the importance of socialization Examine how conformity helps to create and preserve social harmony o How society accomplis...
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This document was uploaded on 02/10/2014.

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