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From Lecture 1 – Introduction-What is Earth System Sciencethe science that studies the whole Earth as a system of many interacting parts and focuses on the changes within and between those parts-What are the 4 major reservoirs and which contains the cryosphereatmosphere(mixture of gases that surrounds the earthhydrosphere(all of earth’s water, oceans, lakes, underground water, includes cryospherebiosphere(earth’s organisms, organic matter that has not decomposedgeosphere(solid earth)-What is the cryosphere the elements of the Earth system containing water in its frozen state (sea ice, snow, lake and river ice, glaciers, ice shelves, icebergs, permafrost and frozen ground…)-How quickly do parts of the cryosphere respond to changeVaries(snow(day to month)<river and lake ice(day to month)<sea ice(day to year)<glaciers and ice caps(month to century)<frozen ground(day to millennium)<ice sheets/shelves(month to millenium)-Where are different parts of the cryosphere found on EarthArctic, Antarctica,-A very rough idea of how parts of the cryosphere have been changing and how this affects the earth system and humansMostly decreasingincreasing in sea levelImpacts on earth:feedbacks on climate system(albedo, release of methane/co2; changes in ocean and atmospheric circulation; changes in ecosystems that depend on snow and ice)Ice sheets contain a record of our climate for the past yearsOn human: water supplies, sea level, natural hazards like floods and avalanches, infrastructure and resource accessibility around arctic; livelihoods)From Lecture 2 – Systems and Feedbacks-What is a system? An isolated portion of the universe under consideration What is the difference between closed and open systems? Open system: exchange energy and mass with surroundings; Closed system: exchange only energy. Be able to say whether something is an open or closed system and identify implications of this. Earth is closed or neither(nearly closed because energy be exchanged but majority of matter cannot)-Be able to identify reservoirs(amount of material of interest in a given form), fluxes(amount of material added to (resource), or removed from( sink) reservoir) and calculate response times for simple systems(the time it would take to empty or fill the reservoir; amount inside reservoir/total sources or sinks)-Be able to identify, draw and explain positive and negative feedbacksPositive(amplifier, increase leads to increase, decrease leads to decrease)Negative(damping, change in output leads to opposite change in input)From Lecture 3– What controls a planet’s temperature (Earth’s energy balance)-Definitions of energy and powerEnergy:the ability to do work(lifting, pushing, pulling anything), to move matter, measured in calories/joules,(1calories=4jules)Power: how quickly energy is used (how many calories burned per minute) -Electromagnetic spectrumElectromagnetic energy: Visible light, x-rays, gamma-rays, radio waves