Lect_6_MutationVariation

requires a lot of sequencing but this is possible now

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Unformatted text preview: are muta6on rates measured? Main obstacles: - - muta6ons are rare (average < 1 x 10- 9 per site per replica6on) many sites and replica/ons must be observed to es/mate rate - - many muta6ons are highly deleterious not observed because mutants are removed by selec/on Main approaches: - - screen for phenotypes resul6ng from known muta6on - ability to produce a specific required nutrient in bacteria - appearance of human achondroplas6c dwarfism - decline in fitness in muta6on accumula6on experiments - - grow strains, sequence DNA of descendants and compare sequences. - requires a lot of sequencing but this is possible now due to advances in sequencing technology Measuring MUTATION rates How are muta6on rates measured? Main obstacles: - - muta6ons are rare (average < 1 x 10- 9 per site per replica6on) many sites and replica/ons must be observed to es/mate rate - - many muta6ons are highly deleterious not observed because mutants are removed by selec/on Main approaches: - - screen for phenotypes resul.ng from known muta.on - appearance of human gene6c disorder - ability to produce a specific required nutrient in bacteria - decline in fitness in muta6on accumula6on experiments - - grow strains, sequence DNA of descendants and compare sequences. - requires a lot of sequencing but this is possible now due to advances in sequencing technology...
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