Measuring random varia6on not connected to specic

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Unformatted text preview: 109 base pairs). 0.16 new muta6ons / haploid genome /genera6on For N= 100,000 (diploid) people: 32,000 new muta6ons /genera6on In HIV (RNA virus) 2x10- 5 muta6ons /base pair /replica6on (genome size is ~10,000 base pairs) 0.2 new muta6ons/genome /replica6on HIV replicates every 1.5 days, 6ters are trillions per host, and millions of hosts are infected. An immense number of muta6ons are produced within each host and even more across the host popula6on. Measuring MUTATION rates How many of these muta.ons contribute to evolu.on? Most new muta6ons are deleterious or neutral. A few new muta6ons are advantageous. à༎raw material for adap6ve evolu6on Fitness effects of MUTATIONS MOST new muta6ons are BAD: Fitness effects of new muta6ons (effect on survival and reproduc6on) study of mutant Pseudomonas (bacteria) Fitness effects of MUTATIONS Chapter 9 Gene6c Varia6on in Popula6ons A simplified view of microevolu6onary processes VARIATION A simplified view of microevolu6onary processes Muta6on VARIATION Migra6on Recombina6on A simplified view of microevolu6onary processes Muta6on Migra6on Recombina6on VARIATION Eliminated Remain as polymorphism Fix Purifying S...
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