Human Evolution (with geneology testing).pptx - HUMAN...

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HUMAN EVOLUTION The Monkey King, or Hanuman in India & Indochina or Sun Wukong in China, is a major character in the mythology of India, China, Japan, Indonesia, & Indochina President Barack Obama meets Lucy at the Ethiopian National Palace, Addis Ababa, 2015
FROM THE UPCOMING SLIDES, YOU SHOULD UNDERSTAND: $ The fact that humans are in the primate biological family group The characteristi cs of primates Mantled guereza colobuses, Africa
HUMANS AS PRIMATES $ Linnaeus realized that humans are an animal that can & should be classified with other species Humans are in the primate group of mammals Primate is Latin for “1 st rank” Except for humans, primates primarily live in the tropics in green areas on map
PRIMATES HAVE A NUMBER OF THINGS IN COMMON $ Highly flexible shoulders Pectoral mammary glands Nails instead of claws Opposable thumbs Well developed cerebullum Typically one young per pregnancy Sensitive tactile pads on the ends of fingers Well developed cerebral cortex Color vision Monkey King statue in Bali, Indonesia
PRIMATE CLADOGRAM UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY
PROSIMIAN PRIMATES Tarsier, Asia Bushbaby or galago, Africa
PROSIMIAN PRIMATES Potto or Softly-softly, Africa LTShears Loris, Asia David Haring
PROSIMIAN PRIMATES: LEMURS All 100 species live in Madagascar & the Comoros, Africa Indri Erik Patel Coquerel’s sifaka Mongoose lemur Shahamalaza sportive lemur wolfmanSF Aye-aye Tom Junek
PROSIMIAN PRIMATES: LEMURS Lac Alaortra bamboo lemur Jotaguru Eastern bamboo lemur Frank Vassen Peters’ pygmy mouse lemur Bikeadventure Geoffrey’s dwarf lemur Red bellied lemur Eastern avahi Alex Dunkel Silky sifaka Jeff Gibbs
PRIMATES: MONKEYS 262 species across North & South America, Africa, & Asia All have tails Mandrill, Africa Brian Emperor tamarin, South America Mila Zinkova Mantled guereza colobus, Africa Red shanked douc langur, Asia
PRIMATES: MONKEYS Golden snub-nosed monkey, Asia Jack Hynes Pygmy marmoset, South America Brian Gratwicke Diana monkey, Africa Ikmo-ned Hamadryas or sacred baboon, Africa
APE, EASTERN HEMISPHERE MONKEY, & HUMAN FAMILY TREE WIKIPEDIA
PRIMATES: APES 19 species, all are endangered Lack tails Last common ancestor of monkeys & apes lived 25 million years ago Bonobo or pygmy chimpanzee, Africa Greg Hume Silvery gibbon, Asia Mountain gorilla, Africa Orangutan, Asia Siamang, Asia Gordon Gartrell
HUMANS ARE 99% GENETICALLY IDENTICAL TO APES Above fact was discovered by Mary- Claire King, Ph.D. (born 1946) of USA who won Lasker Award The 1% genetic difference involves a tripled duplication mutation in SRGAP2 gene that humans that causes formation of lots of brain neurons, a mutation apes lack According to the Wellcome Trust: 1) Humans have 86 million brain neurons 2) Gorillas have 33 million brain neurons 3) Chimpanzees have 28 million brain neurons According to Science , there are 23 other genes that are advantageously mutated in humans, & not in apes that are also part of that 1% difference Another part of 1% difference is that humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, while apes have 24 &

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