Test 3 Study Guide

Test 3 Study Guide - Jonathan Spear BIO 100 Test 3 Study...

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Jonathan Spear BIO 100 Test 3 Study Guide Evolution Gene Expression The Central Dogma- DNA-transcription-RNA-translation-PROTEIN DNA -Subunit: nucleotide -Double Stranded -Bases: A, G, C, T RNA -Subunit: nucleotide -Single stranded -Bases: A, G, C, U Transcription- RNA polymerase binds the DNA at a promoter near a gene. The polymerase will begin linking RNA nucleotides into a strand of RNA, in the order specified by the gene. The DNA double helix becomes unwound in front of the RNA polymerase. The newly forming RNA strand briefly winds up with its DNA template. As the RNA strengthens, it unwinds from the DNA (and the two DNA strands wind up again). RNA polymerase links RNA nucleotides, one at a time, into a strand of RNA. The order of nucleotides added to the growing strand is determined by base pairing with the DNA template. Many other proteins assist this process. Evolution: Darwin Ancient Greeks 1. Some believed in gradual evolution of life 2. Others opposed any concept of evolution Theology- all living things were created in a particular form and have not changed 1. The universe was created a few thousand years ago along with the living things Diversity is a result of evolution 1. Current species are descendents of ancestral species Evidence of Evolution What evidence supports evolution of life from ancestral species? 1. Fossils 2. Biogeography 3. Morphological homology 4. Etc. Darwin 1. Medical Student 2. Naturalist 3. He believed that species are unchanging early in his career
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Darwin’s Voyage- On the Beagle -Fossils of extinct animals -Similar geographic areas had different species -Unique species on islands -Diversity in species on islands -Darwin began to change his theory that species didn’t change Species- Group of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups Darwin’s Realizations 1. Organisms of past and present are related 2. Factors play a role in development of diversity 3. Members of a species change slightly when geographically isolated (on islands) 4. Organisms from islands often resemble those on a nearby mainland Life has evolved and continues to evolve, accounting for all of the diversity we observe Change in earth over time -Charles Lyell (1830s) -Uniformity 1. Today’s Earth results from slow gradual change 2. Show’s that the Earth is MUCH older than a few thousand years -Fossils are similar, but different than living organisms -Evidence that change has occurred Artificial Selection- A clue for Darwin. Artificial selection depends upon natural variation in the population - Desired characteristics are selected by breeder - Every dog can be traced back to wolves Struggle For Survival- Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) -Factors limit population growth -Limited resources, human suffering Darwin’s theory is the first theory on evolution that is yet to be refuted Jean-Baptiste Lamark -Before Darwin -Inheritance by acquired characteristics
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Test 3 Study Guide - Jonathan Spear BIO 100 Test 3 Study...

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