lab 2 - Anthropology 105 Human Species Lab 2 Report Ariel...

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Anthropology 105 Human Species – Lab 2 Report Ariel Lagares October 12, 2013 Introduction Evolution is thought to be one of the greatest phenomena creating our genetic diversity today. Evolution needs these four forces: mutation, genetic drift, genetic flow, and natural selection. Mutation is a change in DNA sequence of a gene that creates a different phenotype for an individual, and it is the source of new alleles in a population. Genetic drift is a process in which the genetic variation of a population is decreased due to random events, and this also decreases the allele frequencies in that population. Genetic Flow is when different genes interbreed within a population, and this increases the allele frequencies in that population. Natural Selection is a process of organisms possessing certain genotypes that are preferable for their environment for survival and reproduction, and it works for certain alleles by increasing their allele frequencies. This lab will focus on one of the forces of evolution by using a computer simulation to demonstrate its effect on a population. In this project, we had investigated how natural selection affects the population of the Darwin’s finches in the Darwin’s Finches Excel. Most of its features were associated with natural selection; thus, it had to play a huge role in determining their allele frequencies. Each of the three finches has a different genotype that prefers a certain level of ripeness in a fruit. The long-beaked finches prefer ripe (red) fruits, medium-beaked finches prefer semi-ripe (yellow) fruits, and short-beaked finches prefer green (unripe) fruits. Environmental factors such as amount of

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