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Study Guide for Anthro 105Aug 30, 2013Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNASmall Changes in DNA can make a big differenceBases: A-adenine, T-thymine, G-guanine, & C- cytosineSequences of bases …CCAGTAGT…. Determines the DNA’s functionChromosome-long string of DNA coiled into a dense, thick rodGene- a section of the chromosome that makes proteins or regulates other genesSept 3, 2013Nuclear DNA– in the nucleus 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)Mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA” – little bacteria found in the cell (Evolution) produce more of its kind that others. A little fossil that is found in ourselvesXY – Male, XX- Female Long chromosomesMitosis– normal cell division Damage in cells, mitosis will use this. Chromosomes duplicate, a daughter cells will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell Meioses- producing “gametes”, sperm and eggs, sex cellDNA duplicate, cell gets pulled apart, instead of same pairs, we have duplicated chromosomes with crossovers and they get pulled apart. Producing 4 gametes. It’s one of the ways that creates birth abnormalities. Uneven shuffling of chromosomes and have an extra chromosome, which makes Down’s Syndrome. Somatic Chromosomes: 46 chromosomesGametes: 23 chromosomesReproduction: passing DNA from parent to offspringFusion of an egg with a sperm to make an embryoSperm:23 chromosomes mtDNA in tail Egg:23 chromosomes mtDNA insideEmbryo:46 chromosomes (23 from each parent) mtDNA from MotherGenotype & PhenotypeDifferent alleles (versions of the gene)
Mendel1.Rule of Segregation: every trait determined by 2 alleles, one from each parent (parents pass 1 allele for a trait each offspring New versions of genes are often mutationsYou have the gene, no, you have the allele to most likely get breast cancer or a disease.2.Rule of Independent assortment: Traits inherited independently of one another.Heterozygote- 2 different allelesHomozygote – same 2 alleles Blood types: A, B, OGenotypes: AA, AB, AO, BB, BO, OOPhenotypes: A, AB, A, B, B, OO is always recessive and AB is codominant (both alleles with show)O does not make protein, it’s clean. A and B has their own antigens and AB has both antigens.Sept 6, 2013Mendel’s Rules (Simple Trait)1.Two alleles for each trait2.Traits are independentExceptions to Mendel1.For some genes, you only have one copy a.Genes on Y- chromosome (males)b.For Males –gene on X chromosomec.mtDNA – one copy, from Mom2.Pleiotropy: one gene can affect multiple traits3.Most traits are complex: many genes affect them.4.Environment (Internal & external): plays a huge role in most traitsGenotype and PhenotypeExample:For length & texture in Dogs, determined by only 3 genes!Golden RetrieverGenes AllelesFGF5- +
RSPO2- +KRT71- +Certain genes that are turned off or on make certain phenotypesGenotype:Often more than 1 gene affects a trait! Ex: 200 genes known to affect height in humansXEnvironment:Ex: Diet, diseases temperature, light exposure, training. Internal environment (ex sex hormones) also play a role!