Study Guide for Anthro 105 - Study Guide for Anthro 105...

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Study Guide for Anthro 105 Aug 30, 2013 Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNA Small Changes in DNA can make a big difference Bases: A-adenine, T-thymine, G-guanine, & C- cytosine Sequences of bases …CCAGTAGT…. Determines the DNA’s function Chromosome -long string of DNA coiled into a dense, thick rod Gene - a section of the chromosome that makes proteins or regulates other genes Sept 3, 2013 Nuclear DNA – in the nucleus 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA” – little bacteria found in the cell (Evolution) produce more of its kind that others. A little fossil that is found in ourselves XY – Male, XX- Female Long chromosomes Mitosis – normal cell division Damage in cells, mitosis will use this. Chromosomes duplicate, a daughter cells will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell Meioses - producing “gametes”, sperm and eggs, sex cell DNA duplicate, cell gets pulled apart, instead of same pairs, we have duplicated chromosomes with crossovers and they get pulled apart. Producing 4 gametes. It’s one of the ways that creates birth abnormalities. Uneven shuffling of chromosomes and have an extra chromosome, which makes Down’s Syndrome. Somatic Chromosomes : 46 chromosomes Gametes : 23 chromosomes Reproduction : passing DNA from parent to offspring Fusion of an egg with a sperm to make an embryo Sperm: 23 chromosomes mtDNA in tail Egg: 23 chromosomes mtDNA inside Embryo: 46 chromosomes (23 from each parent) mtDNA from Mother Genotype & Phenotype Different alleles (versions of the gene)
Mendel 1. Rule of Segregation : every trait determined by 2 alleles, one from each parent (parents pass 1 allele for a trait each offspring New versions of genes are often mutations You have the gene, no, you have the allele to most likely get breast cancer or a disease. 2. Rule of Independent assortment : Traits inherited independently of one another. Heterozygote- 2 different alleles Homozygote – same 2 alleles Blood types: A, B, O Genotypes: AA, AB, AO, BB, BO, OO Phenotypes: A, AB, A, B, B, O O is always recessive and AB is codominant (both alleles with show) O does not make protein, it’s clean. A and B has their own antigens and AB has both antigens. Sept 6, 2013 Mendel’s Rules (Simple Trait) 1. Two alleles for each trait 2. Traits are independent Exceptions to Mendel 1. For some genes, you only have one copy a. Genes on Y- chromosome (males) b. For Males –gene on X chromosome c. mtDNA – one copy, from Mom 2. Pleiotropy: one gene can affect multiple traits 3. Most traits are complex: many genes affect them. 4. Environment (Internal & external): plays a huge role in most traits Genotype and Phenotype Example: For length & texture in Dogs, determined by only 3 genes! Golden Retriever Genes Alleles FGF5 - +
RSPO2 - + KRT71 - + Certain genes that are turned off or on make certain phenotypes Genotype: Often more than 1 gene affects a trait! Ex: 200 genes known to affect height in humans X Environment: Ex: Diet, diseases temperature, light exposure, training. Internal environment (ex sex hormones) also play a role!

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