Evo MammoExam 2 Study GuideThe Basics and Theories Question 1 - locomotion1. Plantigrade - form of locomotion in which the organism walks by planting its whole foot down (with podials and metatarsals flat)2. Digitigrade - the organism walks on the digits and toes with their wrists and heels per-manently raised. 3. Unguligrade - the organism walks on the last phalanges or tips of their digits. Such or-ganisms almost always have hooves, which act as keratinized sheaths atop their toes. -Stride Length: the distance between two successive placements of the same foot when walking or running.-Lever Arm: bone length from where force is applied to the pivot point. A longer lever arm equates to more power, indicative of greater muscle strength needed.-Load Arm: bone length from the pivot point to where the movement actually occurs. *Carnassials: enlarged and blade-like in carnivores used for slicing and chopping: wolf*Bunodont: low mounted cusps, not super-sharp; quadrate asa result of the loss of the paraconid. BROAD DIETS. Humans. *Hypsodont: high crowned, extend high above gumline providing extra-material for wear. For animals that feed on abrasive substances: cows and deers.*Brachydont: low crowned teeth, omnivorous diet. Humans. *Bilophodont: 2 elongated transverse ridges between cusps called “lophs” (think GRATER rather than washboard).*Selenodont: “crescent moon teeth” - crescent like ridges on the crown to incorporate more enamel as a sharper cutting surface: sheep and gazelle *Loxodont: “WASHBOARD” like teeth, shallow hollows between ridges of molars; slop-ing: elephant*Diastema: gap between the two teeth, most commonly between the incisor and mol-ars; sometimes seen in organisms with large canines to accommodate the large teeth. *Lophs: on molar teeth, a ridge connecting cusps*Quadrate: major cusps are: hypo, proto, meta, entoconid. Question 2 - Diet1. Carnivorous - faunivore, piscivore, insectivore)2. Herbivore - frugivory, folivory, gummivore, nectivore, granivore3. Omnivore-Insectivory: excellent source of nutrition, high in calories, fat and protein. Insectivores, tend to be very small animals, as insects couldn’t sustain a larger animal. Anteaters manage by eating obscene amounts of insects. They often have sharply pointed teeth, for piercing the carapaces of insects.