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BISLect7-PhyloSystOutline-1 - Biological Sciences 1B...

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Biological Sciences 1B Lecture 7 (Winter 2008) Phylogeny and Systematics Lecture: I. Systematics-a broad field: evolutionary relationships among animals A. Taxonomy: discovery , naming, description and classification B. Phylogeny: determining evolutionary relationships (like the treet of life or a claytogram) C. Trait evolution: determining how traits evolve in time (fish fin changing to forelimb) II. Taxonomy A. Carl von Linne (Carolus Linnaeus) 1707-1778 invented taxonomy, naming all mammals have homos and genus name 1. Nomenclature: system of animal names a. Species: “binomial” two names genus name, species (italicized) b. Higher taxa “uninominal” single name c. Scientific names “latinized”, permanent Latin does not change common names do 2. Common names poor, constantly change B. Some definitions and concepts 1. Taxon (plural: taxa): any group of organisms a. Within classification system b. Includes species, higher ranks-genera, families etc 2. Alpha-taxonomy: species-level taxonomy a. Recognition and description of species b. Important in species-rich groups 1) e.g., insects, fishes, mites and nematodes! 2) Many not described c. Requires large samples globally 1) Analysis of population variation 2) Interpretation of species differences III. Phylogeny: classification of higher taxa-reflecting pattern of evolution A. Classification: an organized hierarchical summary of information
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