Study Guide for Exam 1

Study Guide for Exam 1 - Study Guide for Exam 1...

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Study Guide for Exam 1 Introduction Define Geology. -Science that studies: Earth’s material, Earth’s history, processes that shape the Earth What is the roll of geology in society. Mineral Lecture Know the parts of an atom. Define ion – atom with excess positive or negative charge (gain or loss of electrons from the outermost shell) Cation – positive charge, lose electrons Anion – negative charge, gain electrons Define isotope – Elements with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus Know the bond types. Ionic - transfer of electrons between cations and anions. Sodium Chloride Covalent – electrons are shared between atoms, Oxygen (O2) Metallic – electrons are shared but move about freely between ions. Good conductors of electricity (copper, gold) Van der Waals – weak attraction (Graphite) How does bond strength relate to mineral hardness? The stronger a mineral’s bond, the harder the mineral. For example, diamonds have the strongest bond (covalent) and are the hardest mineral (10). Graphite, which has a weak bond called Van der Waals is the softest mineral. What are the most common elements on Earth, by weight? Oxygen (47%) and Silicon (28%) What are the requirements a substance must meet to be a mineral? 1. Naturally formed 2. Solid 3. Formed by inorganic processes 4. Specific chemical composition 5. Characteristic crystal structure
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Know about the mineral properties. Cleavage – A preferred plane of weakness along which some crystals break
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course GEO 101 taught by Professor K during the Spring '08 term at Illinois State.

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Study Guide for Exam 1 - Study Guide for Exam 1...

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