Lecture 16-Chp 14 - Glycolysis Chp 14 Part I Key Concept...

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Glycolysis – Chp. 14, Part I Key Concept: Conversion of carbohydrates to energy. 1
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Metabolism Metabolic reactions transfer matter and energy Metabolic pathways are maintained at steady state Equilibrium vs. steady- state: 2 A B A B C = 0 k 1 k -1 k 1 = k -1 dB dt
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Cellular source of energy Obtained from diet Biosynthesized through gluconeogenesis Serves as precursor to metabolic intermediates Glucose is Used Four Ways 3
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Overview of Glycolysis Carbohydrate (Glucose) metabolism Occurs in two phases: Preparatory and Payoff Phase 10 individual steps allow for the control of energy input & output Also fed by amino acid & lipid catabolic pathways Ubiquitous Occurs in all differentiated cell types of multicellular organisms Takes place in cytoplasm Efficient: 60% of energy recovered In form of ATP and NADH Only source of energy for plants & some microorganisms 4
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(1) Glucose + 2 NAD + → 2 pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 H + G'° = -146 kJ/mol (2) 2 ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP + 2 H 2 O G'° = 61 kJ/mol Sum: Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 NAD + + 2 P i 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H + + 2 H 2 O G ′°= -85 kJ/mol Overall Reaction of Glycolysis 5 C C O - O H 3 C O CHO OH H H HO OH H OH H CH 2 OH O OH OH OH OH OH Glucose Pyruvate
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Preparatory/Hexose Phase 6
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1. Phosphorylation of Glucose Phosphorylation on C-6 hydroxyl to yield glucose 6-phosphate Consumes 1 molecule of ATP Irreversible under intracellular conditions Catalyzed by hexokinase; Mg 2+ -dependent 7
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2. Conversion to Fructose 6- phosphate Glucose 6-phosphate is converted to fructose 6-phosphate Aldose to a ketose Reversible reaction is catalyzed by phosphohexose isomerase Mg 2+ -dependent 8
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Comparison of Linear Sugars 9 How does an aldose get converted to a ketose?
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