Lecture+21-Chp+16 - Citric Acid Cycle Chp 16 Key Concept...

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Citric Acid Cycle – Chp. 16 Key Concept: Oxidation of glucose is completed to produce CO 2 and reduced cofactors. 1
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Citric Acid Cycle Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), Krebs cycle, or Cellular Respiration Continuation of Glycolysis – Further oxidation of pyruvate Produces more energy rich compounds and releases CO 2 Interacts with other metabolic pathways Regulated by metabolic intermediates 2
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Overview of Respiration 3 stages All involve oxidation: Loss of electrons, and CO 2 production Electrons transferred to cofactors – Ultimate transfer to O 2 in oxidative phosphorylation 3
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Formation of Acetyl-CoA Pyruvate is oxidized with loss of CO 2 prior to entering the CAC Catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Cluster of three enzymes Located in mitochondria (eukaryotic) and cytosol (bacteria) An oxidative decarboxylation reaction: Irreversible Generates NADH Requires 5 coenzymes! 4
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Coenzyme A Sometimes called CoA-SH to emphasize reactive thiol Thioesters have high standard free energies of hydrolysis Acyl group is activated for group transfer 5
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Other Coenzymes TPP: Thiamine pyrophosphate FAD + : Flavin adenine dinucleotide NAD: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Lipoate 6
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PDH Complex E 1 : Pyruvate dehydrogenase Active site contains TPP E 2 : Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase Site of lipoate attachment • E 3 : Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase Site of bound FAD Contains 2 regulatory proteins Kinase and phosphatase • E 1 -E 2 -E 3 complexes are used in similar metabolic reactions Ex: Oxidation of α -ketoglutarate in TCA 7
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Lipoate is attached through an amide bond to amino group of a Lys
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