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Infancy paper 5

Infancy paper 5 - 1 HaneenKarajah Student#46974119 2 The...

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1 “Infant War Trauma and Psychosocial Development” Haneen Karajah Student #46974119
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2 The psychological implications and processes underlying a traumatic experience in early childhood and adulthood have been greatly investigated in psychology. However, the effects of traumas experienced during infancy have received fewer attention. Recent investigations have found that infants retain memories of traumatic experiences in some form for extended periods of time ( Paley, & Alpert, 2003) . The effect that these traumatic experiences­ particularly those pertaining to war traumas­ have on the psychosocial development of the traumatized infant have yet to be explored. It is important to note, that caregivers in contexts of war also often experience traumatic experiences themselves which can impact their interactions with the infant. According to Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the first stage is one of the most fundamental stages in which the infant develops a sense of trust in others as well as oneself ( Siegler et al., 2011) The development of this stage greatly depends on the warmth, consistency and reliability of the caregiving provided by the mother. If the mother fails to provide these factors, the infant will not develop the ability to trust others when appropriate and will have great difficulties forming intimate and close relationships with others in the future ( Siegler et al., 2011) . Studies investigating infants ability to retain memories of traumatic experiences have supported the suggestion that trauma occurring between 0­36 months can be stored, expressed and encoded in both nonverbal and verbal forms ( Paley, & Alpert, 2003) . A meta analysis of nine studies investigating infant trauma showed that infants can retain both behavioural/implicit memories of trauma; which can be expressed as ‘behavioural reenactments’ defined as “spontaneous expressions of trauma linked to behaviors in everyday activities” ( Paley, & Alpert, 2003) . There is usually no direct link between the
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