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Ch 26 - Phylogeny and the tree of life (1 slide per page)-2

Carolinensis eastern gray squirrel s griseus western

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Unformatted text preview: uirrel) S. aberti (tassel-eared squirrel) S. niger (eastern fox squirrel) S. apache (Apache fox squirrel) S. arizonensis (Arizona gray squirrel) 16 16 Advantages to scientific names 1.Multiple regional common names • cougar • mountain lion • panther • puma • catamount Felis concolor 20 20 Advantages to scientific names 2. The same common name can apply to more than one species American robin (Turdus migratorius) European robin (Erithacus rubecula) 21 21 Advantages to scientific names 3. Not all scientific literature is published in the same language 22 22 Advantages to scientific names 4. Some species have no common name Khawia K. sinensis K. japonensis K. iowensis Genus of tapeworms in carp 23 23 Phylogenetics The study of the evolutionary history of a species or group of species . Phylogeny • The evolutionary history of a species or group of species • Evolutionary relationships between organisms 24 24 Phylogenetic Trees (aka cladogram) Tips Branches Root Branch points (Nodes) See Figure 26.5 (Campbell et al 9th ed) • Tips = taxa under study (species or larger, e.g. mammals) • Branches = genetic divergence of a taxa from its most recent ancestor • Branch Points (Node) = points where 1 group split into 2+ groups (speciation) = common ancestor of descendent spp • Root = oldest common ancestor of all taxa on the tree 25 25 Sister taxa Groups with same most recent common ancestor (MRCA) Sister taxa Mosses Ferns Conifers Flowering plants MRCA See Figure 26.5 (Campbell et al 9th ed) 26 26 Polytomy A node where 3+ branch...
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