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Ch 27 - Bacteria and Archaea (1 slide per page)-1

Coli genetic distance between ribosomal rna of human

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Unformatted text preview: tic distance between ribosomal RNA of two strains of E. coli Genetic distance between ribosomal RNA of human and platypus If there is no genetic recombination during reproduction then where does this genetic diversity come from? 26 Prokaryotes rapidly accumulate mutations due to huge # of individuals and rapid reproductive rate Example: (1 mutation/ gene/ 10 million cell divisions) x (2 x 1010 new E. coli / person/ day) x 4,300 E. coli genes = 9 million mutations per day per human host! 28 Prokaryotes can also acquire new genes via: 1. Transformation – Absorb foreign DNA through their cell walls. – e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae: Harmless strain can uptake DNA from broken-open cells of pathogenic strain and will become pathogenic 2. Transduction – Virus (bacteriophage) transfers DNA btwn bacteria » Phages sometimes accidentally carry random bits of bacterial chromosome following lysis. 3. Conjugation 29 3. Conjugation • Genes on chromosome or on plasmid code for conjugation bridge. • Conjugation Bridge allows one-way donation of: • Plasmid DNA • C...
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