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Ch 40 - animal form and function (3 slides per page)

Ch 40 - animal form and function (3 slides per page) -...

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1 Animal Form and Function CH 40 2 The structure (form) of an organism (i.e. how its parts are organized and of what it’s made) Anatomy The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632, Rembrandt 3 Gross anatomy Microscopic anatomy (histology) Anatomy 4 The physical and chemical processes (functions) of an organism (i.e. how the body works) Physiology e.g. The mechanics of breathing e.g. How does the heart contract? e.g. How does the blood absorb O 2 ? e.g. How does the kidney function? 5 Form Determines Function Bird beak shape determines what they eat or how they obtain food 6 Form Determines Function Like an airplane, a bird’s body and wing shape determine how it flies and thus what/ how they eat Maneuvering Gliding Soaring Racing Hovering
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8 Grasping Scratching Swimming Perching Running Climbing Form Determines Function The shape of a bird’s foot determines what it eats and how it searches for food 9 All is not possible! Constraints on Form and Function (A) Evolutionary history and (B) physical laws place limits on form 10 (A) Evolutionary history (i.e. ancestry) constrains form Lungs Even though whales spend all of their lives in water, due to their ancestry, whales don’t have gills Mammal Phylogeny 11 (B) Physical laws constrain form - Speed IOW natural selection results in similar features in independent evolutionary lineages (i.e. convergent evolution) Body shape is constrained by need to hunt in water due to the drag imposed by water (46x viscosity of air). i.e. aquatic predators must be hairless and sleek 12 1x1x6x1 5x5x6x1 Surface Area to volume ratio (SA : V) affects rate of H 2 O or heat loss or gain thus body size and shape is constrained by environment 2 8 1 SA/V 34/8 = 4.25 24/8 = 3 Figure 6.7 (Campbell 9 th ed) A small deer in a cold climate would freeze due to a large SA : V Small animals loose or gain heat & H 2 O faster than large animals due to higher SA : V Animals with a long body or limbs loose heat & H 2 O faster than compact animals due to higher SA : V A large deer in a hot climate would overheat due to a low SA : V Both size AND shape affect SA : V Physical laws constrain form – Heat & H 2 O exchange 15 Thus: Cell size and shape affects rate of exchange with larger cells having more difficulty moving substances in and out Thus: Cell size is limited since if too large can’t maintain cell So: Organism size is constrained in that to be bigger they must have more cells (i.e. multicellular) not larger cells Figure 40.3 (Campbell 9 th ed) Surface Area to volume ratio affects rate of H 2 O, gas, nutrient and waste exchange Physical laws constrain form – Cell size
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16 (A) Many simple animals are flat or designed so that most cells are in contact with external environment BUT this constraint be circumvented… Figure 40.3 (Campbell 9 th ed) • Since: ALL cells must exchange materials with the environment • Then: If an organism gets thicker then inner cells can’t exchange nutrients/wastes with environment •Thus: Thickness is constrained.
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