The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant Populations and Communities: A Review Author(s): F. Leland Russell, David B. Zippin and Norma L. Fowler Source: American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 146, No. 1 (Jul., 2001), pp. 1-26 Published by: The University of Notre Dame Stable URL: . Accessed: 20/03/2013 20:36 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] . The University of Notre Dame is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to American Midland Naturalist. This content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Wed, 20 Mar 2013 20:36:49 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
The American Midland Naturalist Published Quarterly by The University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana Vol. 146 July, 2001 No. 1 Am. Midi. Nat. 146:1-26 Effects of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Plants, Plant Populations and Communities: A Review F. LELAND RUSSELL1,2, DAVID B. ZIPPIN AND NORMA L. FOWLER Integrative Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin 78712 ABSTRACT.-Large effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) upon individual plants, plant populations and communities have been documented in a number of studies. However, well-supported experimental measures of the magnitude and geographical extent of these effects are still surprisingly scarce. Deer-caused changes in stem morphology and reductions in plant growth rates are well-documented in some parts of the North America. Furthermore, deer have been shown to affect the composition of several plant communities in the north-central and northeastern United States. There are some documented cases of deer-caused reductions in plant survival; most of these are tree seedlings and saplings. How- ever, many studies have detected no effects on plant survival or fecundity, or have found that negative effects occur only in a fraction of years, seasons, sites or deer densities. Little is known about population-level or ecosystem-level impacts. Many regions and plant com- munities with large deer populations have not been studied. Whereas deer density is clearly important in determining spatial and temporal variation in the presence and magnitude of deer effects, other factors that may modify the effects of deer density are poorly understood.
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