02BIS1012013XLinkLect3

In human females this arrest occurs during fetal

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Unformatted text preview: or egg). Also called germline cell. Monad: A haploid (1N) product of Telophase II of meiosis is destined to become a gamete. Pachytene Arrest: A temporary block between the pachytene and diplotene phase of prophase I. In human females this arrest occurs during fetal development and is not removed until the adult female ovulates. The purpose for this is to allow time to build up reserves in the egg. Somatic Cell: Any diploid cell that does not lead to a germline cell. Telomere: Highly repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome, which functions as an aglet. Every time linear eukaryotic chromosomes are replicated, the DNA polymerase complex stops several hundred bases before the end. if it were not for telomeres, this would quickly result in the loss of useful genetic information. In prokaryotes, chromosomes are circular and thus do not have ends to suffer premature replication termination at. Only eukaryotes possess or require telomeres. Wild Type: The naturally occurring phenotype of an allele (eg., round peas, red-eyed fruit flies) compared to a variant, non-wild type or mutant allele that expresses a different phenotype. BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez ©2013 BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez 5 A Review of General Chromosome Structure BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez ©2013 BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez 6 Acrocentric Metaphase Chromosome Structure centromere “p” “q” telomere BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez ©2013 BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez 7 Chromatin Structure BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez ©2013 BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez 8 Sex Linkage The topic of sex-linkage (or the linkage of characters or The genes to sex-determining chromosomes) illustrates three important concepts in genetics: important Sex-linkage experiments performed by Morgan and Sex-linkage associates in 1910, provide experimental evidence for the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance and the concept that genes are actually linked to chromosomes. ­ Sex-linkage introduces the concept of distinct chromosomes Sex-linkage associated with sex determination. associated ­ Sex-linkage provides some of the best examples of genetically Sex-linkage inherited diseases in man (e.g., hemophilia). inherited ­ BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez ©2013 BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez 9 Morgan’s Drosophila Experiments ­ In 1910, Thomas H. In Morgan, a zoologist at Columbia University, began re-examining Mendel's experiments using a new experimental system called Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit melanogaster fly, a member of the order Diptera). BIS101­001, Spring 2013—Genes and Gene Expression, R.L. Rodriguez ©2013 BIS101...
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2014 for the course BIS 101 taught by Professor Simonchan during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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